Σπούδασα και τελείωσα την ειδικότητά μου στην Πάτρα. Από το 2005 λειτουργoύσα Ουρολογικό-Ανδρολογικό Ιατρείο στη Θεσσαλονίκη. Το 2005 τον Ιούνιο πήρα τον τίτλο FEBU ( Fellow of the European Board of Urology ) μετά από εξετάσεις στο Παρίσι.Το Νοέμβριο του 2010 πήρα την άδεια εκτέλεσης Ουρολογικού Υπερήχου. Είμαι ενεργό μέλος της Ελληνικής Ουρολογικής Εταιρείας και του Τμήματος Ανδρολογίας και Υπογονιμότητας της ίδιας. Από τον Αύγουστο του 2009 μετέφερα το ιατρείο μου στο Κιλκίς.
Testicular sperm extraction in the management of non obstructive azoospermia
Testicular tissue. Captured by surgical microscope during micro TESE procedure. Magnification 10X
Azoospermia is the complete inability of finding
any sperm in the ejaculate after multiple centrifugations. There are two types
i) obstructive, where there is a complete, bilateral
obstruction somewhere in the seminal tract and
ii) non obstructive, (up to 86% of all azoospermia cases) where the
problem is that the testes do not produce any mature spermatozoa that can reach
the seminal tract to come out by ejaculation.
The main question for a man who
suffers azoospermia is “will I ever have my own biologic children?” The answer is very easy to give in the case of
obstructive azoospermia (OA): the man can undergo a surgical procedure in an effort
to bypass the obstruction so that the semen returns in his ejaculate, or, if it
is no possible, there is a 100% possibility that the urologist will find plenty
of spermatozoa in his testes that can be used in ICSI, by percutaneous needle
aspiration or a single, classic testicular biopsy.
When it comes however in non obstructive azoospermia
(NOA), things are quite different: for many years, until very recently (1993), these men
was thought to be completely sterile, with no chance of biological paternity.Prior to the availability of assisted
reproductive technologies, the use of donor sperm was the only option offering
a realistic chance of conception for couples affected by non obstructive azoospermia.
The approach to azoospermic patients has changed dramatically with the introduction of sperm retrieval
techniques and assisted reproductive technologies, especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
ICSI offered new possibilities for
achievingpregnancy with sperm retrieved from the testis.
It has been shown that mature spermatozoa can be found in only part of the testes of NOA patients. Testicular spermatozoa can be
retrieved from some NOA men despite the absence of ejaculated spermatozoa in
their semen because of the existence of isolated
foci of active spermatogenesis.
most appropriate method for retrieving
testicular sperm in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is open testicular biopsy
(testicular sperm extraction: TESE). Micro-TESE is an advanced
version of TESE that applies microsurgical techniques to identify
individual seminiferous tubules that are
more likely to contain active spermatogenesis.
optimal technique for sperm extraction should submit the following citeria:
it should be minimally
destruction of testicular function
compromising the chance to retrieve adequate numbers of spermatozoa for
several ICSI cycles.
Microsurgical Testicular Sperm Extraction
(micro-TESE), performed with an operative microscope,
is widely considered to be the best method for sperm retrieval in NOA, as
larger and opaque tubules, presumably with active spermatogenesiscan be
directly identified, resulting
in higher spermatozoa retrievalrates with minimal tissue loss and low
postoperative complications. In picture 1 you can see the advantage of
micro-TESE in testicular tissue access. In pictures 2,3,4,5,6 and 7 you can see intraoperative snapshots of how we see testicular tissue under great magnification and how "normal" testicular tubules are beeing one by one identified and extracted .
Picture 2. Picture 3.
Picture 4. Picture 5.
Using micro TESE we can retrieve sperm adequate
for two or three cycles of ICSI in 48 - 63 % of cases,when the classic
testicular open biopsy is succesful in only 16,7 - 45%. It is very important,
that micro-TESE is also effective for patients in whome conventional TESE has
failed. In these patients, with previous unsuccessful classic biopsies, sperm retrieval with micro-TESE can be
achieved in up to 51%. Micro-TESE,
in combination with ICSI, is applicable in all cases of NOA, including
Klinefelter syndrome (KS).
In conclusion, micro-TESE is the method of choice in the treatment of
non obstructive azoospermia and a unique
chance of azoospermic men to become biologic fathers.
Ishikaw. Surgical recovery of sperm in non-obstructive Azoospermia . Asian
Journal of Andrology (2012) 14, 109–115